UPASHAYA & ANUPASHAYA : A BIRD’S EYE VIEW
The approach of the treatment in any disease begins with Roga Pareeksha and Rogi Pareeksha. Once these two concepts are clear, Vyadhi Vinishchaya will be perfect. This enables the Vaidya to choose appropriate Chikitsa. The five entities of Roga Pareeksha are Nidana (aetiology), Purvaroopa (early signs and symptoms), Roopa (cardinal features), Upashaya (symptomatic treatment) and Samprapti (pathogenesis). When Vaidya has doubtful diagnosis of a disease after thorough examination, he will carry out symptomatic first hand simple therapy, result of which will clarify his ambiguity in diagnosis. For example the pain in the Janu Sandhi may raise the doubt in the physician regarding its diagnosis as Amavata or Sandhivata. The Sthanika Taila Prayoga as Upashaya will result in clarity of diagnosis. Hence Upashaya (Pathya) and Anupashaya (Apathya) are the diagnostic tools in Vyadhi Vinishchaya. This creates a pavement for the path of thinking that Ahara, Vihara and Oushadha which relieve the Lakshanas of any Vyadhi are considered as Upashaya and those which aggravate or worsen are called as Anupashaya. This concept can be practically utilised to advice the Rogi regarding Pathya and Apathya in the specific disesase and it also helps to diagnose the disease without confusion. Hence a detailed knowledge of Upashaya (Pathya) and Anupashaya (Apathya) is essential in Chikitsa.
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