Case Report


Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences

2022 Volume 7 Number 1 Jan-Feb

Role of Viddhakarma in management of Gandhanasha w.s.r. to Hyposmia - A Clinical Study

Pradhan N.1, Pandagale S.2*

1 Nilakshi Pradhan, Head of Department, Dept. of Shalakyatantra, Sumatibhai Shah Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Hadapsar, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

2* Shradha Pandagale, Final Year Post Graduate Scholar, Dept. of Shalakyatantra, Sumatibhai Shah Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Hadapsar, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Ghranendriya is the tools for obtaining the knowledge of Gandha. According to Ayurveda Indriyas are the apparatus to attain knowledge for Atma. Knowledge, which is perceived, Analyzed, given, or received by Atma. Indriya composed of five elements still specific Mahabhuta dominates precise Indriya. This is the specific reason behind reception of specific sensation by its respective Indriya. Nose is the prime sense organ among all the sense organ, which is the Adhishthan of Ghranendriya, Prithvi Mahabhuta dominates Ghranendriya and receive knowledge of Gandha. Ayurveda usually defines hyposmia as Gandhanasha. Which is cause due to many etiologies, including trauma, chronic sinusitis, neoplasms, and respiratory viral infections. Sushruta has described Viddhakarma as a treatment modality for Gandhanasha. Olfactory dysfunction has been associated with alteration in appetite and mood. The sense of smell has an enormous impact on patient’s quality of life.

Keywords: Hyposmia, Gandhanasha, Viddhakarma, sense of smell

Corresponding Author How to Cite this Article To Browse
Shradha Pandagale, Final Year Post Graduate Scholar, Dept. of Shalakyatantra, Sumatibhai Shah Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Hadapsar, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
Nilakshi Pradhan, Shradha Pandagale, Role of Viddhakarma in management of Gandhanasha w.s.r. to Hyposmia - A Clinical Study. J Ayu Int Med Sci. 2022;7(1):397-400.
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Manuscript Received Review Round 1 Review Round 2 Review Round 3 Accepted
2022-01-24 2022-01-25 2022-02-01 2022-02-08 2022-02-15
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© 2022by Nilakshi Pradhan, Shradha Pandagaleand Published by Maharshi Charaka Ayurveda Organization. This is an Open Access article licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ unported [CC BY 4.0].


Ayurveda is one of the most ancient medical science which is rational and scientific among the all-classical text of Ayurveda. Sushrut Samhita and Ashtang Hradaya give a wide description about Vedhana in Shalakyatantra. The role of Viddhakarma proves its effectiveness in improving hyposmia.

Hyposmia means reduce sense of smell. It should be tested individually in each nostril. Anosmia or hyposmia can cause due to trauma. Olfactory neurons can recover or regenerate after injury. As per Ayurveda concept, it is type of Vata Vyadhi. Viddhakarma mentioned in selective clinical condition where Vata Dushti presents. This procedure release vitiated Vata in affected area. Vidhakarma is also known as Vedhana. It is one of eight Shashtrakarma mentioned in Sushrut Samhita.[1]

This is a sterile procedure which includes piercing points with special hallow needle considering the anatomy of Marmas. Viddhakarma doesn’t require any internal medication as an addictive to enhance its effect.

Study rational:

Hyposmia is not commonly encountered in day-to-day practice, but majority of Indian people affected with this condition. This disease commonly manifests in trauma that damage nerve, Nasal congestion due to cold, Nasal mucosal inflammation due to allergy. Viddhakarma is the therapeutic procedure adopted according to severity of loss of smell sense. Management of Hyposmia or Anosmia is expected to give good results without any side effects. Effective, economic, safe treatment modality is selected in present study i.e., Viddhakarma in Gandhnasha.

Case Study

In this case study 24 years old unmarried female patient working as student was selected for Viddhakarma in management of hyposmia. Patient visited to OPD of Shalakyatantra with complain of loss of sense of smell in the last one month, patient having history of road traffic accident one month ago, since the incidence she loss the sense of smell. MRI and routine investigation were done. All investigations were within normal limit.

Patient had taken Analgesics, Anti-inflammatory for pain relief. She has taken Anti-oxidants but without any significant result in hyposmia. After careful assessment olfactory function test and examinations patient has reduced ability to detect the smell sensation and diagnosed with hyposmia. It was decided that these be treated with Viddhakarma Chikitsa for 20 days with 10 sittings up to complete getting sense of smell.


  1. To evaluate the effect of Viddhakarma in hyposmia.
  2. To evaluate the improvement in sense of smell.

Materials and Methods


Needle no 26 and 1/2-inch, cotton gauze, spirit.


  • Duration of study – 20 days
  • Follow up – 0th, 2nd, 4th, 6th,8th 10th,12th, 14th 16th 18th 20th
  • Study location - Shalakyatantra OPD.

Diagnostic criteria

Ghranendriya Pariksha

Regarding examination of Indriya the Dnyanendriya is examined for its functional status as status of perfection in perception of knowledge of respective object. While doing Indriya Pariksha one thing should be noted that in term of modern science these Indriyas reflecting through their respective Adhisthana are very well supplied and associated by cranial nerves. So, examination of Indriya is considered along with the functioning status of cranial nerves.

Following examination procedure can be followed for examination of Ghranendriya.

Procedure for Ghranendriya Pariksha

  1. Close the eyes of the patient.
  2. Different substance having diverse odor are then brought near patient nostril (2 cm away from the nostril)
  3. One by one and each time subject is asked to recognize the sense of smell.


Inclusion criteria

  1. Patient of either gender or age.
  2. Patient between age group of 18-50 year.
  3. Patient diagnosed with anosmia or hyposmia.

Exclusion criteria

  1. Patient suffering from severe systemic disorders, DM, HTN, HIV, HbsAg reactive.
  2. Avedhya Sira - 50 Avedhya Sira in Urdhvajatrugata.
  3. Patient who are contraindicated for Viddhakarma.

Standard operating procedure of Viddhakarma



  1. Written consent was taken.
  2. Patient was made to lie down in supine position.


  1. The area was clean with spirit solution
  2. Mark the point at Nasagra and Upnasika.
  3. The angle of needle can be at 90 degrees to the skin and may have deeper penetration due to more muscle availability.
  4. Piercing the point with special hallow needle no 26 and 1/2-inch, 0.45 breath and 13mm length.
  5. Remove needle gently.

Paschat karma

  1. Blood oozed out from the pricked site was wiped with cotton.
  2. The needle used for Viddhakarma was disposed of.


Site of Viddhakarma[2]

  1. Nasagra
  2. Upanasika

Depth of Viddha[3]

  1. Skin - 1/2 Yawa (2-4mm)
  2. Mansa - 1 Yawa (4-6mm)
  3. Bone - 1/2 Yawa (6-10mm)

Samyaka Yoga[4]

  1. Blood stops from piercing point.
  2. Improve sense of smell.

Follow up study: The effect of therapy was compared before and after treatment based on subjective parameter.


Patient got sense of smell after completion of 20th day. All symptoms were relived, no adverse effects observed throughout the entire period. To observe any recurrence of symptoms was followed up after 1 month but recurrence of symptoms was not observed patient was fully satisfied with the Viddhakarma.


Adhisthana of Ghranindriya is Nasa inside Sharir which is embedded with dominance of Prithvi Mahabhuta and is responsible for acquisition of its special attributes - Ganddha (smell). The Gandhavahi Dhamanis related to Ghranendriya are responsible to complete their respective work viz. transmission and interpretation of sense of smell and this is accompanied by Pranavaayu.

Bloodletting caused by Viddhakarma breaks the Avarana of Vata by Kapha Dosha and channelizes

the Vata Dosha. Hence the process Gandhagrahana becomes normal. Further the leaning process carries on where the Gandhavahi Dhamani connects Mana which is synchronous with Atma. This is last state where perception of knowledge of sense of smell is felt by Buddhi. It is necessary for normal sense of smell, the respective Ghranendriya.

Mode of action

  • Removal of obstruction in blood vessels and establishment of circulation.
  • Letting out Vata.


Olfactory information plays crucial role in keeping a person physically safe. A loss of sense of smell can increase the risk of not noticing warning signs such as the smell of gas, fire or spoiled food. Vedhana help to remove Awarana of Kapha Dosha giving way to Anuloman Gati of vitiated Vata. Vedhana indirectly cures the symptoms. Viddhakarma is a simple, economical, and effective procedure in the management of Gandhanash, without producing any adverse effect.


  1. R. Srikantha Murthy, Sushrut Samhita, Sutrasthana ashtavidh sastrakarma adhyaya 25/10 edition 2005, Chaukhamba Orientialia varanasi page 183
  2. Gogate RB viddha and agnikarma chikitsa vidyamitra prakashan edition 2004 pune page no. 36-38
  3. Kaviraj Dr. Ambikadatta Shastri, Sushrut Samhita part 2, Sharirsthan chapter 8, sholka no.9, edition reprint 2009, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi. Page no. 86
  4. Kaviraj Dr. Ambikadatta Shastri, Sushrut Samhita part 2, Sharirsthan chapter 8, sholka no.11, edition reprint 2009, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi. Page no. 87