Research Article


Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences

2023 Volume 8 Number 12 December

A review article on types of Dhatu-Kshaya (depletion) and its clinical significance

Rupali1*, Rupali K2, Sakshi C3, Rajesh KM4

1* Rupali, Second Year Post Graduate Scholar, Dept of Rog Nidan Evam Vikriti Vigyan, Rggpg Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Paprola Dist Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India.

2 Kapoor Rupali, Third Year Post Graduate Scholar, Dept of Rog Nidan Evam Vikriti Vigyan, RGGPG Ayurvedic College Hospital Paprola, Dist Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India.

3 Chauhan Sakshi, Second Year Post Graduate Scholar, Dept of Rog Nidan Evam Vikriti Vigyan, RGGPG Ayurvedic College Hospital, Paprola Dist Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India.

4 Kumar Manglesh Rajesh, Professor and HOD, Dept of Rog Nidan Evam Vikriti Vigyan, RGGPG Ayurvedic College Hospital, Paprola Dist Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Ayurveda is an old science that is very scientific and based on several fundamental principles. The science of life, or Ayurveda, categorizes the body's constituents within three essential elements Dosha (tissue entities), Dhatu (biological entities), and Mala, or waste materials. The balance between these entities is crucial to the durability and healthy lives for people. Similar to a progressive evolutionary metamorphosis, the production of Saptadhatus begins with the fundamental product of digestion, called Rasa Dhatu, and continues with the production of Rakta (blood tissue), Mamsa (muscle tissue), Meda (fat tissue), Asthi (bone tissue), Majja (bone marrow), and Sukra Dhatu (feces from reproduction). Every Dhatu is the basis for every other one and nourishes the one above it. The meals keep the steadily decreasing Dhatus in balance. That suggests the Dhatus are interdependent, with modifications to one causing modifications to the other. The goal of this review is to integrate different sources and arrive at a consensus. This paper explains the concept of Dhatu-Kshaya (depletion) in general terms and gives examples of how it can be used in real-world situations.

Keywords: Dhatu, Dhatu-Kshaya, Dhatu Siddhanta

Corresponding Author How to Cite this Article To Browse
Rupali, Second Year Post Graduate Scholar, Dept of Rog Nidan Evam Vikriti Vigyan, Rggpg Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Paprola Dist Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India.
Rupali, Rupali K, Sakshi C, Rajesh KM, A review article on types of Dhatu-Kshaya (depletion) and its clinical significance. J Ayu Int Med Sci. 2023;8(12):141-144.
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Manuscript Received Review Round 1 Review Round 2 Review Round 3 Accepted
2023-10-12 2023-10-24 2023-11-01 2023-11-13 2023-11-23
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© 2023by Rupali, Rupali K, Sakshi C, Rajesh KMand Published by Maharshi Charaka Ayurveda Organization. This is an Open Access article licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ unported [CC BY 4.0].


Ayurveda's special method of healing blends medicinal treatment with Rasayana (rejuvenation) therapy to keep people healthy and treat illnesses.[1] A functioning cell is always an essential component of a living organism. Sharira Dharana and Poshana are Dhatus's two main responsibilities.[2]

Dhatu translates to "bears" or "supports," whereas Sapta signifies "seven." According to Ayurveda, the body's seven main tissues provide structure, growth, and nourishment to the whole.[3] Dhatus are a kind of tissue that are similar to the primary tissue that modern science has discovered in many aspects.

They are contained within the boundaries of the skin from the outside, and from the inner side, they are held the boundaries of the mucous membrane. Every Dhatu has an Updhatu, or subunit, which functions in tandem with the other Dhatus to fortify the body.[4]

Dhatus are governed by the three biological humours, or Doshas. Unlike Dhatus, which nourish the body's tissues, Updhatu support and strengthen the body.[5] In Ayurveda, optimal tissue renewal is ensured by appropriate digestion and eating habits. Following complete digestion of food, tissue formation starts. The term "Dhatu-Kshaya" describes the thinning or loss of bodily tissues.[6]

Knowing Dhatu and Dhatu-Kshaya is as important to learning about disease processes as knowing Tridosha. This review will highlight, evaluate, expound upon, and discuss Dhatu-Kshaya.

Aim and Objectives

1. To assess, elucidate, and converse about Dhatu-Kshaya in light of Ayurveda.

2. To demonstrate Dhatu-Kshaya's clinical significance.

Materials and Methods

Information about Dhatu-Kshaya is gathered from texts on Ayurveda, such as the textbooks of modern medicine, Laghutrayi, and Bahatrayi. Medical journals with and without indexes have also been consulted in order to compile data on pertinent subjects.

Literary Review

Dhatu Siddhanta (Theory of tissues formation and differentiation)

The central idea of Ayurveda is based on the equilibrium of Tridosha, Saptadhatu, and Trimala.

Each of these is suitably nourished following a meal by the influence of their own Jatharagni (digestive energy) potency.[7] Then, each level of Dhatu (bodily tissues) receives the productive nutrients (Ahara Rasa) for sustenance. Ultimately, all of the nutrients needed for the synthesis and growth of every tissue come from a single pool. Their assistance is transported to the Dhatus's location. Every Dhatvagni's function affects every Dhatus's feeding (the metabolic energy of every tissue). Promoting the growth of self-clones of the corresponding tissue and dependent tissues (Upadhatus) is the primary responsibility of each Dhatvagni. The primary function of each Dhatvagni is to promote the growth of self-clones of the corresponding tissue and dependent tissues (Upadhatus). Additionally, each Dhatu's Dhatvagni supplies the necessary vitamins to succeeding tissues, enhancing their ability to clone. As a result, the Dhatus of Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa, Meda, Asthi, Majja, and Shukra grow in turn and nourish other Dhatus. For instance, Rasadhatvagni is crucial to the development of Rakta Dhatu from Rasa Dhatu, and Raktadhatvagni's influence further nourishes the Mamsa Dhatu. If there is a change in the potency of any degree of Dhatvagni, it could impact the process of creating the next Dhatu. During this process, certain metabolic byproducts called Dhatumala (tissue excreta) are produced. Throughout their lives, everyone is subject to the same Dhatu differentiation and development phenomenon. Tissue deformation could be caused by any Avarana (obstruction) or Dushti (vitiation) in specific Srotas (tissue microcirculation). Ayurveda explains some theories of tissue genesis and development (Dhatu Pushti Nyaya). The four primary theories are Khale Kapota Nyaya, Ksheera Dadhi Nyaya, Kedara Kulya Nyaya, and Ek Kala Dhatu Pushti Nyaya. During feeding from Rasa to Shukra Dhatu, the Dhatvagni of each Dhatu essentially divide essential materials into three divisions: Sukshma, Sthula, and Mala Bhaga. Organs can survive a lifetime because tissue-specific stem cells can self-renew and produce differentiated progeny.

Depletion of body tissues-It is explained in 17th chapter of Charaka Samhita Sutrasthana.[8]

1. Rasa Dhatu Kshaya or depletion of Plasma: The Rasa is the first tissue to form after food is broken down. Once the food has been digested, the substance is known as Rasa Dhatu. It is likened by some to blood plasma. The Kapha Dosha and Rasa Dhatu are closely related. Rasa Dhatu is directly impacted by variations in Kapha Dosha. A decrease in Rasa Dhatu signifies malnourishment and dehydration.[9]

The symptoms are as follows:

  • Ghattate - patient becomes restless
  • Sahate Shabdam Na - Person does not stand loud sounds, becomes intolerant
  • Hrudrava - palpitation
  • Hrudayam Tamyati Alpa Cheshtasya Api - cardiac pain, exhaustion even with the slightest exertion.

2. Rakta Dhatu Kshaya or depletion of Blood: Rasa Dhatu is the source of nourishment for blood tissue; Pitta and Rakta are inseparably connected. Blood tissue is directly impacted by an increase or decrease in Pitta Dosha.[10] Anaemia symptoms, which include:

  • Parusha (roughness)
  • Sphutita (cracks)
  • Mlana (dullness)
  • Tvakrukshata (dry skin)

These are brought on by the depletion of blood tissue.

3. Mamsa Dhatu Kshaya or depletion of Muscle tissue: Rakta Dhatu provides nutrition to muscle tissue. Limb weakness is directly caused by the depletion of muscle tissue which is caused by:-

  • Sphik, Greeva Udara Shushkata - emaciation of the buttocks, neck and abdomen.[11]
  • Glani - Exhaustion even without any work
  • Sandhi Sphotana - Cracking sound in the joints
  • Akshno-Ayasa - Tired eyes

4. Medo Dhatu Kshaya or depletion of Fat tissue: Fat tissue receives nourishment from Mamsa Dhatu. Absence of this leads to thinness of the body.

  • Udara Tanutva - Thinness of the abdomen.[12]

5. Asthi Dhatu Kshaya or depletion of Bone tissue: Bone tissue has an inverse relationship with Vata Dosha. This implies that bone tissue loss is caused by an increase in Vata Dosha and vice versa.

Ayurveda says that bone tissue is related to the teeth, nails, and moustache. Therefore, the following signs of bone tissue loss are present:

  • Kesha, Loma, Nakha, Shmashru, Dvijaprapatana - falling of hair, nails hair of the beard including moustaches and teeth
  • Shrama - tiredness
  • Sandhi Shaithilya - looseness of joints.[13]

6. Majja Dhatu Kshaya or depletion of Bone marrow: According to Ayurveda, Asthi Dhatu provides nourishment for the marrow. The symptoms of Majja depletion as follows:-

  • Asthi Sheeryata - Emptiness of bones
  • Durbala, Laghu Asthi - Thinness, weakness, and lightness of the bones
  • Vata Roga - Frequent affliction with Vata imbalance disorders.[14]

7. Shukra Dhatu Kshaya or depletion of Semen / Female reproductive tissues: According to Ayurveda, the reproductive systems of men and women make up Shukra Dhatu. It receives nutrition from Majja Dhatu. Its depletion causes the following symptoms:-

  • Daurbalya - Weakness
  • Mukha-Shosha - Dryness of mouth
  • Pandutva - Pallor
  • Sadana - Lassitude
  • Shrama - Tiredness
  • Klaibya - Impotency
  • Shukra-Avisarga - Non-ejaculation of semen, nonovulation.[15]

Discussion and Conclusion

Dhatus and Malas are the structural units, and Doshas are the energy forms. The Dhatus and Doshas are referred to as Asrayaas and Asrayees, respectively.

Dhatu is defined as "Sharira Dharanat Dhatvah," or the things that provide the body with sustenance and support.

Some authors claim that, from an Ayurvedic standpoint, the body's genesis is Anna - food substances that humans, animals, or those plants absorb to sustain life and growth. The body's unusual parts are eliminated through perspiration, urine, and stool, while the useful parts - also referred to as Anna-rasa or Adhyarasa - help produce and maintain the other Dhatus. According to Acharaya Sushruta, the Shareera/body is the "Panchamahabhuta Vikaara Samudayatmakam," meaning that the Dosha, Dhatus, and Malas all contribute to the building of the body's numerous organs and tissues. As a result of their unity as Panchabhutas, they are called "Panchamahabhuta Vikara." Future medical researchers might find it advantageous to reciprocally incorporate ideas from the Dhatu-Kshya (depletion) Siddhanta of Ayurveda.


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