To develop and validate an Integrated Yoga Module for Basketball Players

  • Kritika Rathod Department of Ashtanga Yoga, Lakulish Yoga University, Ahmedabad, India.
  • Vijay Kumar PS Department of Ashtanga Yoga, Lakulish Yoga University, Ahmedabad, India.
  • Sahana AU Department of Academics, Lakulish Yoga University, Ahmedabad, India.
  • Tresha Rathod Department of Ashtanga Yoga, Lakulish Yoga University, Ahmedabad, India.
Keywords: Injury Prevention, Overtraining, Performance, Yoga for Athletes, Yogic Training

Abstract

Basketball sport required high-level of fitness-related components, heart rate, blood lactate, aerobic capacity, anaerobic power and psychological demands from an athlete. From scientific evidence it has been observed that yoga helps in develop the entire psycho physiological component without giving physical stress to the body if it is practiced in proper manner. However, a validated Yoga module for basketball player is unavailable. The IYM for basketball players is prepared after doing detailed and systematic review of classical and contemporary yogic texts and earlier research evidence. The content validity of IYM for basketball players was presented to SMEs and evaluated by an experienced panel comprised of 30 yoga experts who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Data analysis exhibited that out of 85 yogic practices, 45 yogic practices showed substantial content validity. According to lawshe’s method, 0.33 is the critical value of CVR (minimum CVR value) required for validation with 30 SMEs. The current study proposes that the IYM for Basketball players is valid with good content validity. However, future research studies must determine the efficacy and feasibility of the developed module.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Alemdaroğlu, U. (2012). The relationship between muscle strength, anaerobic performance, agility, sprint ability and vertical jump performance in professional basketball players. Journal of Human Kinetics, 31/2012, 149 – 158. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10078-012-0016-6

Balasubramanian, B., & Pansare, M. S. (1991). Effect of yoga on aerobic and anaerobic power of muscles. Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology, 35(4), 281–282.

Ben Abdelkrim, N., Chaouachi, A., Chamari, K., Chtara, M., & Castagna, C. (2010). Positional role and competitive-level differences in elite-level men's basketball players. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 24(5), 1346–1355. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181cf7510

Ben Abdelkrim, N., El Fazaa, S., & El Ati, J. (2007). Time-motion analysis and physiological data of elite under-19-year-old basketball players during competition. British journal of sports medicine, 41(2), 69–75. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2006.032318

Bera, T. K., & Rajapurkar, M. V. (1993). Body composition, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power of yogic practitioner. Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology, 37(3), 225–228.

Bessa, A. L., Oliveira, V. N., Agostini, G. G., Oliveira, R. J., Oliveira, A. C., White, G. E., Wells, G. D., Teixeira, D. N., & Espindola, F. S. (2016). Exercise Intensity and Recovery: Biomarkers of Injury, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 30(2), 311–319. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31828f1ee9

Beutler, E., Beltrami, F. G., Boutellier, U., & Spengler, C. M. (2016). Effect of regular yoga practice on respiratory regulation and exercise performance. PloS one, 11(4), e0153159.

Bhole, M. V., Karambelkar, P. V., & Gharote, M. L. (1970). Effect of yoga practices on vital capacity. (A preliminary communication). The Indian journal of chest diseases, 12(1), 32–35.

Boksem, M. A., & Tops, M. (2008). Mental fatigue: costs and benefits. Brain research reviews, 59(1), 125–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2008.07.001

Brachman, A., Kamieniarz, A., Michalska, J., Pawłowski, M., Słomka, K. J., & Juras, G. (2017). Balance Training Programs in Athletes - a Systematic Review. Journal of human kinetics, 58, 45–64. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2017-0088

Broad, W. J. (2012). The science of yoga: The risks and the rewards. Simon and Schuster.

Brunelle, J. F., Blais-Coutu, S., Gouadec, K., Bédard, É., & Fait, P. (2015). Influences of a yoga intervention on the postural skills of the Italian short track speed skating team. Open access journal of sports medicine, 6, 23–35. https://doi.org/10.2147/OAJSM.S68337

Campbell, W. W., Crim, M. C., Young, V. R., & Evans, W. J. (1994). Increased energy requirements and changes in body composition with resistance training in older adults. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 60(2), 167–175. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/60.2.167

Carr, C. M. (2003). Psychological issues in basketball. In D. B. McKeag (Ed.), Handbook of Sports Medicine and Science: Basketball (pp. 115-127). Malden MA: Wiley.

Castagna, C., Chaouachi, A., Rampinini, E., Chamari, K., & Impellizzeri, F. (2009). Aerobic and explosive power performance of elite italian regional-level basketball players. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 23(7), 1982–1987. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b7f941

Castagna, C., Manzi, V., Impellizzeri, F., Chaouachi, A., Ben Abdelkrim, N., & Ditroilo, M. (2010). Validity of an on-court lactate threshold test in young basketball players. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 24(9), 2434-2439. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e2e1bf

Caterisano, A., Patrick, B. T., Edenfield, W. L., & Batson, M. J. (1997). The effects of a basketball season on aerobic and strength parameters among college men: Starters vs. reserves. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 11(1), 21-24.

Chung, S. C., Brooks, M. M., Rai, M., Balk, J. L., & Rai, S. (2012). Effect of Sahaja yoga meditation on quality of life, anxiety, and blood pressure control. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.), 18(6), 589–596. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2011.0038

Collins C. (1998). Yoga: intuition, preventive medicine, and treatment. Journal of obstetric, gynecologic, and neonatal nursing: JOGNN, 27(5), 563–568. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6909.1998.tb02623.x

de Araujo, G. G., de Barros Manchado-Gobatto, F., Papoti, M., Camargo, B. H., & Gobatto, C. A. (2014). Anaerobic and aerobic performances in elite basketball players. Journal of human kinetics, 42, 137–147. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2014-0068

Drakos, M. C., Domb, B., Starkey, C., Callahan, L., & Allen, A. A. (2010). Injury in the national basketball association: a 17-year overview. Sports health, 2(4), 284–290. https://doi.org/10.1177/1941738109357303

Ebnezar, J., Yogitha Bali, M., John, R., & Gupta, O. (2014). Role of integrated approach of yoga therapy in a failed post-total knee replacement of bilateral knees. International journal of yoga, 7(2), 160–164. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6131.133932

Edwards, T., Spiteri, T., Piggott, B., Bonhotal, J., Haff, G. G., & Joyce, C. (2018). Monitoring and Managing Fatigue in Basketball. Sports (Basel, Switzerland), 6(1), 19. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6010019

Erčulj, F., & Supej, M. (2009). Impact of fatigue on the position of the release arm and shoulder girdle over a longer shooting distance for an elite basketball player. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 23(3), 1029–1036. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181a07a27

Galantino, M. L., Galbavy, R., & Quinn, L. (2008). Therapeutic effects of yoga for children: a systematic review of the literature. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 20(1), 66-80.

Gillen, L., & Gillen, J. (2008). Yoga calm for children: Educating heart, mind, and body. Three Pebble Press, LLC.

Gocentas, A., Landor, A., & Andziulis, A. (2004). Dependence of intensity of specific basketball exercise from aerobic capacity. Pap Anthropol, 13, 9-17.

Gore, M. M. (2008). Anatomy and physiology of yogic practices. Motilal Banarsidass.

Gryko. K., Stastny. P., Kopiczko. M., Pecha. O., & Perkowski. K. (2019). Can anthropometric variables and maturation predict the playing position in youth basketball players? Journal of human kinetics, 69, 109–123. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2019-0005

Gupta, R. K., Agnihotri, S., Telles, S., & Balkrishna, A. (2019). Performance in a Corsi Block-tapping Task following High-frequency Yoga Breathing or Breath Awareness. International journal of yoga, 12(3), 247–251. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_55_18

Haidary, M., Gandomi, F., & Hasan, M. S. (2020). The Effect of Eight Weeks Yoga Training on the Mental Fatigue Control and Balance, Lower Extremity Function and Landing Mechanic in physical education Students. Journal for Research in Sport Rehabilitation, 7(14), 85-99. https://doi.org/10.22084/rsr.2020.21620.1507

Halson, S. (2017). Overtraining syndrome in athletes. UpToDate. Retrieved.

Halson, S. L. (2003). Performance, metabolic and hormonal alterations during overreaching (Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology).

Han, J., Anson, J., Waddington, G., Adams, R., & Liu, Y. (2015). The Role of Ankle Proprioception for Balance Control in relation to Sports Performance and Injury. BioMed research international, 2015, 842804. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/842804

Hasan, M. S., Haydary, M., & Gandomi, F. (2020). The Effect of an 8-Week Yoga Training Program on Balance and Knee Proprioception After Mental Fatigue in Amateur Male Athletes. Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 5(4), 228-239.

Hoffman, J. R. (2003). Physiology of basketball. In D. B. McKeag (Ed.), Handbook of Sports Medicine and Science: Basketball (pp. 12-24). Malden MA: Wiley.

Hoffman, J. R., Epstein, S., Einbinder, M., & Weinstein, Y. (1999). The influence of aerobic capacity on anaerobic performance and recovery indices in basketball players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 13(4), 407-411.

Ibáñez, S. J., Sampaio, J., Feu, S., Lorenzo, A., Gómez, M. A., & Ortega, E. (2008). Basketball game-related statistics that discriminate between teams’ season-long success. European Journal of Sport Science, 8(6), 369–372.

Iftekher, S. N. M., Bakhtiar, M., & Rahaman, K. S. (2017). Effects of yoga on flexibility and balance: a quasi-experimental study. Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 3(2), 276-281

Jain, S. (2016). Effect of Six Week Training of Alternate Nostril Breathing on Cardiac Output and Systemic Peripheral Resistance in Prehypertensive Obese Young Adults. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, 7(1).

Jevning, R., Wilson, A. F., & Davidson, J. M. (1978). Adrenocortical activity during meditation. Hormones and behavior, 10(1), 54–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/0018-506x(78)90024-7

Joshi, M., & Telles, S. (2009). A nonrandomized non-naive comparative study of the effects of kapalabhati and breath awareness on event-related potentials in trained yoga practitioners. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.), 15(3), 281–285. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2008.0250

Kaminoff, L., Matthews, A., & Ellis, S. (2007). Yoga anatomy. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Käthner, I., Wriessnegger, S. C., Müller-Putz, G. R., Kübler, A., & Halder, S. (2014). Effects of mental workload and fatigue on the P300, alpha and theta band power during operation of an ERP (P300) brain-computer interface. Biological psychology, 102, 118–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.07.014

Kellmann M. (2010). Preventing overtraining in athletes in high-intensity sports and stress/recovery monitoring. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 20 Suppl 2, 95–102. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01192.x

Khalsa, S. B., Hickey-Schultz, L., Cohen, D., Steiner, N., & Cope, S. (2012). Evaluation of the mental health benefits of yoga in a secondary school: a preliminary randomized controlled trial. The journal of behavioral health services & research, 39(1), 80–90. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11414-011-9249-8

Khan, M. K., Khan, A., Khan, S. U., & Khan, S. (2017). Effects of anxiety on athletic performance. Res. Inves. Sports Med, 1, 1-5.

Kirkwood, G., Rampes, H., Tuffrey, V., Richardson, J., & Pilkington, K. (2005). Yoga for anxiety: a systematic review of the research evidence. British journal of sports medicine, 39(12), 884–891. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2005.018069

Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel psychology, 28(4), 563-575.

Lehmann, M. J., Lormes, W., Opitz-Gress, A., Steinacker, J. M., Netzer, N., Foster, C., & Gastmann, U. (1997). Training and overtraining: an overview and experimental results in endurance sports. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 37(1), 7–17.

Lovatt, D., Xu, Q., Liu, W., Takano, T., Smith, N. A., Schnermann, J., Tieu, K., & Nedergaard, M. (2012). Neuronal adenosine release, and not astrocytic ATP release, mediates feedback inhibition of excitatory activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(16), 6265–6270. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1120997109

MacLean, C. R., Walton, K. G., Wenneberg, S. R., Levitsky, D. K., Mandarino, J. P., Waziri, R., Hillis, S. L., & Schneider, R. H. (1997). Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on adaptive mechanisms: changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after 4 months of practice. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 22(4), 277–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0306-4530(97)00003-6

Madankumar, S. (2018). Improvement in handgrip strength in normal volunteers following selective sukshma vyayam practices: A Pilot randomized control trial [Master’s Thesis, Government Yoga and Naturopathy Medical College, Chennai]. http://repository-tnmgrmu.ac.in/id/eprint/10174

Mahajan, A. S. (2014). Role of yoga in hormonal homeostasis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology, 1(3), 173-8.

Matthew, D., & Delextrat, A. (2009). Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and time-motion analysis of female basketball players during competition. Journal of sports sciences, 27(8), 813–821. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410902926420

McCall, M. C. (2013). How might yoga work? An overview of potential underlying mechanisms. Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy, 3(1), 1.

McCormick, A., Meijen, C., & Marcora, S. (2018). Psychological demands experienced by recreational endurance athletes. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16(4), 415-430. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2016.1256341

McInnes, S. E., Carlson, J. S., Jones, C. J., & McKenna, M. J. (1995). The physiological load imposed on basketball players during competition. Journal of Sports Sciences, 13(5), 387 – 397. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419508732254

Millet, G. Y., & Lepers, R. (2004). Alterations of neuromuscular function after prolonged running, cycling and skiing exercises. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 34(2), 105–116. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200434020-00004

Narazaki, K., Berg, K. E., Stergiou, N., & Chen, B. (2009). Physiological demands of competitive basketball. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 19(3), 425-432. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00789.x

Noyes, F. R., Barber-Westin, S. D., Smith, S. T., Campbell, T., & Garrison, T. T. (2012). A training program to improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school basketball players. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 26(3), 709–719. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318228194c

O’Connor, P. J., Morgan, W. P., Raglin, J. S., Barksdale, C. M., & Kalin, N. H. (1989). Mood state and salivary cortisol levels following overtraining in female swimmers. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 14(4), 303–310. https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4530(89)90032-2

Pageaux, B., & Lepers, R. (2018). The effects of mental fatigue on sport-related performance. Progress in brain research, 240, 291–315. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.004

Pal, G. K. (2015). Yoga and heart rate variability. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology, 2(1), 2-9.

Parnabas, V. A., & Mahamood, Y. (2012). Anxiety and imagery of green space among athletes. British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 4(1), 67-72.

Parnabas, V. A., Mahamood, Y., Parnabas, J., & Abdullah, N. M. (2014). The relationship between relaxation techniques and sport performance. Universal Journal of Psychology, 2(3), 108-112.

Petway, A. J., Freitas, T. T., Calleja-González, J., Medina Leal, D., & Alcaraz, P. E. (2020). Training load and match-play demands in basketball based on competition level: A systematic review. PloS one, 15(3), e0229212. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0229212

Plisky, P. J., Rauh, M. J., Kaminski, T. W., & Underwood, F. B. (2006). Star Excursion Balance Test as a predictor of lower extremity injury in high school basketball players. The Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy, 36(12), 911–919. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2006.2244

Pojskić, H., Šeparović, V., Užičanin, E., Muratović, M., & Mačković, S. (2015). Positional Role Differences in the Aerobic and Anaerobic Power of Elite Basketball Players. Journal of human kinetics, 49, 219–227. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2015-0124

Polsgrove, M. J., Eggleston, B. M., & Lockyer, R. J. (2016). Impact of 10-weeks of yoga practice on flexibility and balance of college athletes. International journal of yoga, 9(1), 27–34. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6131.171710

Pragman, D. (1998). Understanding sport psychology. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. and Alternative Medicine, 4, 519-529.

Purvis, D., Gonsalves, S., & Deuster, P. A. (2010). Physiological and psychological fatigue in extreme conditions: overtraining and elite athletes. PM & R : the journal of injury, function, and rehabilitation, 2(5), 442–450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2010.03.025

Raghavendra, B. R., & Ramamurthy, V. (2014). Changes in heart rate variability following yogic visual concentration (Trataka). Heart India, 2(1), 15

Raghuraj, P., Ramakrishnan, A. G., Nagendra, H. R., & Telles, S. (1998). Effect of two selected yogic breathing techniques of heart rate variability. Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology, 42(4), 467–472.

Rahayuni, K. (2019, February). Psychological Demands and Cultural Sport Psychology in Indonesian Context. In 2nd International Conference on Sports Sciences and Health 2018 (2nd ICSSH 2018) (pp. 91-97). Atlantis Press. https://www.atlantis-press.com/proceedings/icssh-18/55914035

Raju, P. S., Madhavi, S., Prasad, K. V. V., Venkata Reddy, M., Eswara Reddy, M., & Sahay, B. K. (1994). Comparison of effects of yoga & physical exercise in athletes. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 100, 81-81.

Raju, P. S., Prasad, K. V., Venkata, R. Y., Murthy, K. J., & Reddy, M. V. (1997). Influence of intensive yoga training on physiological changes in 6 adult women: a case report. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.), 3(3), 291–295. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.1997.3.291

Raub J. A. (2002). Psychophysiologic effects of Hatha Yoga on musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary function: a literature review. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.), 8(6), 797–812. https://doi.org/10.1089/10755530260511810

Ravi, S. (2016). The Application and Effectiveness of Yoga in Prevention and Rehabilitation of Sport Injuries in Athletes Participating in Competitive Sport. LASE JOURNAL OF SPORT SCIENCE is a Scientific Journal published two times per year in Sport Science LASE Journal for sport scientists and sport experts/specialists, 44.

Ray, U. S., Mukhopadhyaya, S., Purkayastha, S. S., Asnani, V., Tomer, O. S., Prashad, R., Thakur, L., & Selvamurthy, W. (2001b). Effect of yogic exercises on physical and mental health of young fellowship course trainees. Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology, 45(1), 37–53

Ray, U. S., Sinha, B., Tomer, O. S., Pathak, A., Dasgupta, T., & Selvamurthy, W. (2001a). Aerobic capacity & perceived exertion after practice of Hatha yogic exercises. The Indian journal of medical research, 114, 215–221.

Schiphof-Godart, L., Roelands, B., & Hettinga, F. J. (2018). Drive in Sports: How Mental Fatigue Affects Endurance Performance. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 1383. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01383

Schober, P., D. (2018). The introduction of yoga recovery on physiological and psychological stress and performance in NCAA athletes. [Master’s Thesis, University of Montana]. ScholarWorks at University of Montana. https://scholarworks.umt.edu/etd/11141

Selvamurthy, W., Sridharan, K., Ray, U. S., Tiwary, R. S., Hegde, K. S., Radhakrishan, U., & Sinha, K. C. (1998). A new physiological approach to control essential hypertension. Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology, 42(2), 205–213

Shashikiran, H. C., Shetty, S., Shetty, P., & Kumar, C. (2015). A study on influence of yoga on autonomic variables on young adults. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 4(2).

Sinha, B., Ray, U. S., Pathak, A., & Selvamurthy, W. (2004). Energy cost and cardiorespiratory changes during the practice of Surya Namaskar. Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology, 48(2), 184–190.

Stojanović, E., Stojanović, N., Scanlan, A. T., Dalbo, V. J., Berkelmans, D. M., & Milanovic. Z. (2018). The activity demands and physiological responses encountered during basketball match-play: A Systematic Review. Sports Med, 48(1), 111-135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0794-z

Streeter, C. C., Gerbarg, P. L., Saper, R. B., Ciraulo, D. A., & Brown, R. P. (2012). Effects of yoga on the autonomic nervous system, gamma-aminobutyric-acid, and allostasis in epilepsy, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Medical hypotheses, 78(5), 571–579. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2012.01.021

Streeter, C. C., Jensen, J. E., Perlmutter, R. M., Cabral, H. J., Tian, H., Terhune, D. B., Ciraulo, D. A., & Renshaw, P. F. (2007). Yoga Asana sessions increase brain GABA levels: a pilot study. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.), 13(4), 419–426. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2007.6338

Stueck, M., & Gloeckner, N. (2005). Yoga for children in the mirror of the science: Working spectrum and practice fields of the training of relaxation with elements of yoga for children. Early child development and care, 175(4), 371-377. https://doi.org/10.1080/0300443042000230537

Sudsuang, R., Chentanez, V., & Veluvan, K. (1991). Effect of Buddhist meditation on serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, pulse rate, lung volume and reaction time. Physiology & behavior, 50(3), 543–548. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9384(91)90543-w

Talwadkar, S., Jagannathan, A., & Raghuram, N. (2014). Effect of trataka on cognitive functions in the elderly. International journal of yoga, 7(2), 96–103. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6131.133872

Tavino, L. P., Bowers, C. J., & Archer, C. B. (1995). Effects of basketball on aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity, and body composition of male college players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 9(2), 75-77.

Taylor, K., Chapman, D., Cronin, J., Newton, M. J., & Gill, N. (2012). Fatigue monitoring in high performance sport: a survey of current trends. The Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning, 20(1), 12-23.

Telles, S., Gupta, R. K., Gandharva, K., Vishwakarma, B., Kala, N., & Balkrishna, A. (2019). Immediate Effect of a Yoga Breathing Practice on Attention and Anxiety in Pre-Teen Children. Children (Basel, Switzerland), 6(7), 84. https://doi.org/10.3390/children6070084

Telles, S., Sharma, S. K., Yadav, A., Singh, N., & Balkrishna, A. (2014). Immediate changes in muscle strength and motor speed following yoga breathing. Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology, 58(1), 22–29.

Telles, S., Singh, N., & Balkrishna, A. (2015). Metabolic and Ventilatory Changes During and After High-Frequency Yoga Breathing. Medical science monitor basic research, 21, 161–171. https://doi.org/10.12659/MSMBR.894945

Thirthalli, J., Naveen, G. H., Rao, M. G., Varambally, S., Christopher, R., & Gangadhar, B. N. (2013). Cortisol and antidepressant effects of yoga. Indian journal of psychiatry, 55(Suppl 3), S405–S408. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.116315

Tyagi, A., & Cohen, M. (2013). Oxygen consumption changes with yoga practices: a systematic review. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 18(4), 290-308. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156587213492770

Uma, K., Nagendra, H. R., Nagarathna, R., Vaidehi, S., & Seethalakshmi, R. (1989). The integrated approach of yoga: a therapeutic tool for mentally retarded children: a one‐year controlled study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 33(5), 415-421.

Uygur, M., Goktepe, A., Ak, E., Karabörk, H., & Korkusuz, F. (2010). The Effect of Fatigue on the Kinematics of Free Throw Shooting in Basketball, Journal of Human Kinetics, 24(2010), 51-56. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10078-010-0019-0

Van Yperen, N. W. (2003). On the link between different combinations of Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA) and job performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(8), 1873-1881.

Wascher, E., Rasch, B., Sänger, J., Hoffmann, S., Schneider, D., Rinkenauer, G., Heuer, H., & Gutberlet, I. (2014). Frontal theta activity reflects distinct aspects of mental fatigue. Biological psychology, 96, 57–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2013.11.010

Weinberg, R. S., & Gould, D. (2011). Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology (5 ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Woodyard C. (2011). Exploring the therapeutic effects of yoga and its ability to increase quality of life. International journal of yoga, 4(2), 49–54. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6131.85485

Wren, A. A., Wright, M. A., Carson, J. W., & Keefe, F. J. (2011). Yoga for persistent pain: new findings and directions for an ancient practice. Pain, 152(3), 477–480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2010.11.017

Yilmaz, G. (2014). The effects of Power, Speed, Skill and Anaerobic Capacity of different training models in young male basketball players. The Anthropologist, 18(3), 877-883. https://doi.org/10.1080/09720073.2014.11891619

How to Cite
Kritika Rathod, Vijay Kumar PS, Sahana AU, & Tresha Rathod. (2021). To develop and validate an Integrated Yoga Module for Basketball Players. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences, 6(4), 58 - 71. Retrieved from https://jaims.in/jaims/article/view/1389
Section
Original Article